Every year, cancer takes the lives of hundreds of thousands of individuals. Standard treatments, such as chemotherapy or radiation, are only effective in a small percentage of patients because of disease heterogeneity. With the introduction of precision medical tools, research, and treatments, the diagnosis and treatment of diseases such as cancer is becoming more precise and specialized. Precision medicine is a concept used to characterize the most recent efforts to enhance diagnosis, treatment, and outcomes for individuals and subgroups by examining and analyzing genomic data. The risk of developing specific diseases or cancers, their potential severity, one's ability to fight them, and the likelihood of positive or negative reactions to medications, radiation, or other therapies are all determined by a person's genetic makeup. Major advancements in genetic and biomarker testing, as well as pharmacogenetics, will assist to avoid toxic, inefficient, and ineffective research, resulting in more precise and effective pharmaceuticals and therapies at all levels.